What is Glaucoma?
Glaucoma is the name for a group of eye conditions in which optic nerve is damaged at the point where it leaves the eye. This nerve carries information from the light sensitive layer, the retina, to the brain where it is perceived as a picture.
In some people, the glaucoma damage is caused by raised eye pressure. Others may have an eye pressure within normal limits but damage occurs because there is weakness in the optic nerve.
Different types of Glaucoma
Open angle glaucomas (chronic glaucoma): It is most common. The eye is anatomically normal, but blockage or malfunction of the drainage channels slowly over many years causes elevated eye pressure. There is no pain but the field of vision gradually becomes impaired. We need to use chemical cleaner (eye drops) to open the drain or turn down the faucet. If this is insufficient, we can stake the drain (laser trabeculoplasty) & if that doesn’t work. We need to put in new plumbing (surgery / implants)
Angle closure glaucoma (Acute glaucoma): The trabecular meshwork is normal, but the iris is pushed against the meshwork & there is sudden and more complete blockage to the flow of aqueous. It means the drainage channels are covered by a stopper & we need to remove the stopper (laser iridotomy). This glaucoma can be quite painful & will cause permanent damage to sight if not treated promptly.
Secondary and developmental glaucoma: When a rise in eye pressure is cause by another eye condition it is called secondary glaucoma. Glaucoma in childhood is called developmental or congenital which is caused by malformation in the eye.
> People over the age of 45.
> People with family history of glaucoma.
> People with myopia are more prone to develop open angle glaucoma & those with hyperopia are more prone to develop angle closure.
Warning Signs of Glaucoma
> Trouble adjusting to dark rooms
> Difficulty focusing on near or distant objects
> Squinting or blinking due to sensitivity to light or glare
> Recurrent pain in or around eyes
> Double vision
> Dark spot at the center of viewing
> Lines and edges appear distorted or wavy
> Excess “watery eyes”
> Dry eyes with itching or burning
Surgical facility includes
> Trabeculectomy with anti-fibrotic agents (MMC)
> Trabeculotomy for congenital glaucoma
> GLAUCOMA VALVE IMPLANT/ GLAUCOMA
> DRAINAGE DEVICE for complicated cases